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IFR報告:各國如何投資機器人研發

IFR Report: How nations invest in robotics research
IFR報告:各國如何投資機器人研發

The Corona crisis highlights the important contribution that robots make to industry and to society. Research funding programs (R&D) are vital to enable and further support these developments: New technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and 5G, drive government funding in Asia, Europe and America. What are the targets of the officially driven government research funding programs and what can we learn from these findings? This has been researched by the International Federations of Robotics and published in the new paper “World Robotics R&D Programs” by IFR.

新冠危機凸顯了機器人對產業和社會的重要貢獻。研究資助計劃(R&D)對于推動和進一步支持這些發展至關重要:人工智能、大數據和5G等新技術推動了亞洲、歐洲和美國的政府資助。官方推動的政府研究資助計劃的目標是什么?我們可以從這些發現中學到什么?國際機器人聯合會(IFR)對此進行了研究,并在其新論文《世界機器人研發計劃》中發表。

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“Each country has its own characteristics of robot programs based on its specific background and history,” says Prof. Dr. Jong-Oh Park, Vice-Chair IFR Research Committee and member of the Executive Board. “Therefore, we see that robotics programs set up by the most advanced robotics countries have a very different strategic focus.”

“基于特定的背景和歷史,每個國家都有自己的機器人項目特點,” IFR研究委員會副主席兼執行委員會委員Jong-Oh Park教授說。 “因此,我們看到由最先進的機器人國家制定的機器人計劃具有顯著不同的戰略重點。”

The strategic plan Made in China 2025 comes as a blueprint to upgrade the manufacturing capabilities of Chinese industries. This includes advanced robots among the top 10 core industries. The Robot Industry Development Plan sets out the goals for China in 2020, including: (1) developing three to five globally competitive robot manufacturers, (2) creating eight to ten industrial clusters, (3) achieving 45% of domestic market share for China's high-end robots, and (4) increasing China’s robot density to 100 robots per 10,000 workers. The statistical yearbook "World Robotics" by IFR shows that China reached a robot density of 140 units per 10,000 workers in the manufacturing industry in 2018. In 2019, the Chinese government invested 577 million USD in the development of intelligent robots.

《中國制造2025》戰略計劃是提升中國工業制造能力的藍圖。其中包括十大核心產業中的先進機器人。《機器人產業發展計劃》設定了2020年中國的目標,其中包括:(1)發展三到五家具有全球競爭力的機器人制造商;(2)創建八到十個產業集群;(3)實現中國高端機器人45%的國內市場份額;(4)將中國的機器人密度提高到每萬名工人100臺機器人。國際機器人聯合會的《世界機器人》統計年鑒顯示,2018年中國制造業的機器人密度達到每萬名工人140臺。2019年,中國政府投資5.77億美元用于開發智能機器人。

The New Robot Strategy in Japan is a key policy of the Abenomics Growth Strategy. The robot-related budget for 2019 has been increased to 351 million USD, with the aim to to make Japan the robot innovation hub in the world. The action plan includes manufacturing as well as important service sectors like healthcare, agriculture and infrastructure. According to the statistical yearbook "World Robotics" by IFR, Japan is the world´s number one industrial robot manufacturer and delivered 52% of the global supply in 2018.

日本的《機器人新戰略》是安倍經濟學增長戰略的一項重要政策。2019年與機器人相關的預算已增加至3.51億美元,旨在使日本成為全球機器人創新中心。該行動計劃包括制造業以及重要的服務部門,例如醫療保健、農業和基礎設施。根據國際機器人聯合會的《世界機器人》統計年鑒,日本是全球第一大工業機器人制造國,2018年占全球供應量的52%。 

The Intelligent Robot Development and Supply Promotion Act of Korea is pushing to develop the robot industry in Korea as a core industry in the fourth industrial revolution. The 3rd basic plan for Intelligent Robots published in 2019 promotes systematic selection and concentration of promising public and private sectors. Focus areas are: manufacturing businesses, selected service robot areas (including healthcare and logistics), next-generation key components and key robot software. The robot-related budget for 2020 is 126 million USD (151 billion won). The statistical yearbook "World Robotics" showed a new record stock of about 300,000 operational industrial robots in the Republic of Korea in 2018 (+10%). Within five years, the country has doubled its number of industrial robots in operation. Following Japan and China, the country ranked third in 2018.

韓國的《智能機器人開發與供應促進法》正在推動將韓國的機器人產業發展為第四次工業革命的核心產業。 2019年發布的第三版“智能機器人基本計劃”促進了有前途的公共和私營部門的系統選擇和集中。重點領域包括:制造業務、選定的服務機器人領域(包括醫療保健和物流)、下一代關鍵組件和關鍵機器人軟件。2020年機器人相關預算為1.26億美元(1510億韓元)。《世界機器人》統計年鑒顯示,2018年韓國約有30萬臺可操作工業機器人,創下新的記錄(增長了10%)。在五年之內,該國已投入使用的工業機器人數量翻了一番。僅次于日本和中國,韓國在2018年全球排名第三。

Robotics projects funded by Horizon 2020, the European Union´s 8th Framework Program, represent a wide variety of research and innovation topics – ranging from manufacturing, commercial and healthcare use to consumer, transportation, and agri-food robotics. Through this program, EC provides an estimated 780 million USD funding for robotics research and innovation over its seven-year runtime. The main topics of the Work Program 2018-2020 are related to digitization of industry through robotics, robotics applications in promising new areas, and robotics core technologies such as AI and cognition, cognitive mechatronics, socially cooperative human-robot interaction, and model-based design and configuration tools with the total budget of 173 million USD.

由歐盟第八框架計劃——“地平線2020”計劃(Horizon 2020)資助的機器人項目代表了廣泛的研究和創新主題——從制造業、商業和醫療保健應用到消費者、運輸和農業食品機器人。通過這個項目,歐洲委員會在七年的運行時間里為機器人研究和創新提供了大約7.8億美元的資金。《2018-2020年工作計劃》的主要議題涉及通過機器人技術實現工業數字化,機器人技術在有希望的新領域的應用,以及機器人技術核心技術,如人工智能和認知、認知機電一體化、社會合作人機交互以及基于模型的設計和配置工具,總預算為1.73億美元。

As part of its High-Tech Strategy, Germany support the use of new digital technologies within industry and administration. The “PAiCE” program with a funding budget of 55 million USD (50 million euros) over five years emphasizes the development of digital industry platforms as well as collaboration between companies using these platforms. In particular, the robotics-oriented projects are focusing on the creation of platforms for service robotics solutions in the various relevant application areas including service, logistics, and manufacturing fields. Germany is the fifth largest robot market in the world and number one in Europe, followed by Italy and France. In 2018, the number of robots sold increased by 26% to almost 27,000 units – a new all-time record.

作為其高科技戰略的一部分,德國支持在產業和行政管理中使用新的數字技術。“ PAiCE”計劃的五年預算為5500萬美元(5000萬歐元),著重于數字產業平臺的開發以及使用這些平臺公司之間的合作。特別是,面向機器人技術的項目側重于在服務、物流和制造領域等各種相關應用領域中創建服務機器人解決方案平臺。德國是世界第五大機器人市場,在歐洲排名第一,其次是意大利和法國。2018年,德國售出的機器人數量增長了26%,約為2.7萬臺,創歷史新高。

The National Robotics Initiative (NRI) in the USA was launched for fundamental robotics R&D supported by the US Government. The main goals focus on fundamental science, technologies, and integrated systems needed to achieve a vision of ubiquitous collaborative robots assisting humans in every aspect of life. Moreover, in NRI-2.0, collaboration between academia, industry, non-profit, and other organizations is encouraged. The budget of NRI for 2019 is 35 million dollars. Additional robotics funding for application in defense and space is provided through the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Mars Exploration Program. According to the statistical yearbook "World Robotics", robot installations in the United States increased for the eighth year in a row to a new peak in 2018. Regarding annual installations, the country has taken third position from the Republic of Korea.

在美國政府的支持下,美國啟動了《國家機器人計劃》(NRI)進行基礎機器人技術的研發。 主要目標集中于基礎科學、技術和集成系統,以實現無處不在的協作機器人在生活的各個方面幫助人類的愿景。此外,在《國家機器人計劃2.0》中,鼓勵學術界、工業界、非營利組織和其他組織之間的合作。2019年《國家機器人計劃》的預算是3500萬美元。 美國國防部和“火星探索計劃”(Mars Exploration Program)為在國防和太空領域應用的機器人技術提供了額外的資金。根據《世界機器人》統計年鑒,美國的機器人安裝量連續第八年增長,在2018年達最高峰。就年度安裝量而言,美國超越韓國位居全球第三。  

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